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阿奎丹的埃利诺(上)
来源:中国世界中世纪史研究 作者:本站编辑 [日期:2009-11-21] 浏览:

Eleanor of Aquitaine奎丹的埃利诺

Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122 1 April 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Western Europe during the High Middle Ages. She was the patroness of such literary figures as Wace, Benoît de Sainte-More, and Chrétien de Troyes.

阿奎丹的埃利诺(1122-120441)是中世纪鼎盛时期西欧最富有且最具实力的女人。她是瓦斯(Wace)Benoît de Sainte-More和特鲁瓦的克里斯蒂安等文学名人的庇护人。

Eleanor succeeded her father as suo jure Duchess of Aquitaine and Countess of Poitiers at the age of fifteen, and thus became the most eligible bride in Europe. Three months after her accession she married Louis VII, son and junior co-ruler of her guardian, King Louis VI. As Queen of the Franks, she participated in the unsuccessful Second Crusade. Soon after the Crusade was over, Louis VII and Eleanor agreed to dissolve their marriage, because of Eleanor's own desire for divorce and also because the only children they had were two daughters - Marie and Alix. The royal marriage was annulled on 11 March 1152, on the grounds of consanguinity within the fourth degree. Their daughters were declared legitimate and custody of them awarded to Louis, while Eleanor's lands were restored to her.

15岁时,埃利诺从其父手中继承了阿奎丹公爵领地和普瓦提埃伯爵领地,由此成为欧洲最中意的新娘。继承大笔遗产之后3个月,埃利诺便嫁给了监护人法国国王路易六世的儿子、年少的共治者路易七世。作为法国的王后,埃利诺成功地参与了第二次十字军东征。第二次十字军东征刚刚结束,路易七世与埃利诺便协议结束了这场婚姻,既因为埃利诺自己希望离婚,也因为两者婚姻仅生下了两个女儿玛丽(Marie)和阿利克斯(Alix)1152311日,这场王室联姻因存在四代内的血缘关系而宣告取消。他们的女儿被确认为合法,监护权给了路易七世,与此同时,埃利诺的领地被收归自己。

As soon as she arrived in Poitiers, Eleanor proposed to the eleven years younger Henry II, Duke of the Normans. On 18 May 1152, eight weeks after the annulment of her first marriage, Eleanor married the Duke of the Normans. On 25 October 1154 her husband ascended the throne of the Kingdom of England, making Eleanor Queen of the English. Over the next thirteen years, she bore Henry eight children: five sons, two of whom would become king, and three daughters. However, Henry and Eleanor eventually became estranged. She was imprisoned between 1173 and 1189 for supporting her son's revolt against King Henry II.

刚刚回到普瓦提埃,埃利诺便向比她小11岁的诺曼人公爵亨利二世求婚。1152518日,即第一次婚姻解除后8个星期,埃利诺与诺曼人公爵亨利二世结婚了。11541025日,第二次婚姻的夫君登上了英格兰王位,埃利诺也成为了英格兰的王后。在此后的13年里,埃利诺为亨利二世生下了8个子女:5个儿子,其中的2个后来登了王位;3个女儿。然而,亨利与埃利诺之间最终还是疏离了。1173年和1189年,因为支持其儿子发动叛乱反对亨利二世,埃利诺被监禁。

Eleanor was widowed on 6 July 1189. Her husband was succeeded by their son, Richard the Lionheart, who immediately moved to release his mother. Now queen mother, Eleanor acted as a regent for her son while he went off on the Third Crusade. Eleanor survived her son Richard and lived well into the reign of her youngest son King John. By the time of her death she had outlived all of her children except for King John and Eleanor, Queen of Castile.

118976,埃利诺开始寡居的生活。其丈夫的王位为其子狮心王理查所取代,埃利诺也立即得到释放。其子理查参加十字军东征期间,作为王太后的埃利诺扮演着摄政的角色。埃利诺的寿命长于其子理查,一直活到她的小儿子约翰统治时期。到她去世时,其子女中只有约翰国王和卡斯提的王后埃利诺还在。

 

 

Early life早期的生活

 

 

Eleanor or Aliénor was the oldest of three children of William X, Duke of Aquitaine, whose glittering ducal court was on the leading edge of early12th-century culture, and his wife, Aenor de Châtellerault, the daughter of Aimeric I, Viscount of Chatellerault, and Dangereuse, who was William IX 's longtime mistress as well as Eleanor's maternal grandmother. Her parents' marriage had been arranged by Dangereuse with her paternal grandfather, the Troubadour.

埃利诺是阿奎丹公爵威廉十世(William X, Duke of Aquitaine)与夏特勒罗尔的阿诺尔(Aenor de Châtellerault)的3个子女中最年长的一个。在12世纪早期文化中,阿奎丹公爵的辉煌宫廷独领风骚。夏特勒罗尔的阿诺尔是夏特勒罗尔子爵艾默里克一世与唐哥罗斯(Dangereuse)的女儿。唐哥罗斯是威廉九世的长期情妇,同时也是埃利诺的外祖母。埃利诺父母的婚姻是由唐哥罗斯和作为行吟歌手的埃利诺的祖父一手安排的。

Eleanor was named for her mother Aenor and called Aliénor, from the Latin alia Aenor, which means the other Aenor. It became Eléanor in the langues d'oïl and Eleanor in English. There is, however, an earlier Eleanor on record: Eleanor of Normandy, William the Conqueror's aunt, who lived a century earlier than Eleanor of Aquitaine.

埃利诺的名子源自她的母亲阿诺尔,因此被称为Aliénor出自拉丁文alia Aenor,意即另一个阿诺尔。在奥依语(langues d'oïl)中被称为Eléanor,在英语中被称为Eleanor。但是,在较早的记载中,有征服者威廉的姑姑诺曼底的埃利诺,比阿奎丹的埃利诺早一个世纪。

By all accounts, Eleanor's father ensured that she had the best possible education.Although her native tongue was Poitevin, she was taught to read and speak Latin, was well versed in music and literature, and schooled in riding, hawking, and hunting. Eleanor was extroverted, lively, intelligent, and strong willed. In the spring of 1130, when Eleanor was eight, her four-year-old brother William Aigret and their mother died at the castle of Talmont, on Aquitaine's Atlantic coast. Eleanor became the heir presumptive to her father's domains. Duchy of Aquitaine was the largest and richest province of France; Poitou and Aquitaine together were almost one-third the size of modern France. Eleanor had only one other legitimate sibling, a younger sister named Aelith but always called Petronilla. Her half brothers, William and Joscelin, were acknowledged by William X as his sons, but not as his heirs. Later, during the first four years of Henry II's reign, all three siblings joined Eleanor's royal household.

 从所有的记述中可知,埃利诺的父亲曾保证过,一定会使她受到尽可能好的教育。尽管埃利诺与生俱来的语言是普瓦图语,但她被教授读和说的则是拉丁语,同时在音乐和文学方面也非常精通,在骑马、鹰猎和狩猎方面也多有训练。埃利诺性格外向、活泼、聪明且有着坚强的意志。1130年春,埃利诺8岁时,比她大4岁的哥哥威廉·阿戈里特(William Aigret)以及她的母亲皆死于阿奎丹的大西洋沿岸的塔勒蒙城堡。埃利诺成为其父所拥有领地的推定继承人。阿奎丹公爵领地是法国境内最大和最富有的省份。普瓦图与阿奎丹两者合在一起相当于现代法国1/3的面积。埃利诺仅有一位合法的妺妺埃利丝,但始终被称为彼得罗妮拉(Petronilla)。虽然她的同父异母兄弟威廉和乔斯林已被威廉十世认作自己的儿子,但并没有指定其为继承人。后来,在亨利二世统治的头4年里,埃利诺所有的三个兄弟姊妹都分享了她的王室财产。

 

 

Inheritance 遗产

 

In 1137, Duke William X set out from Poitiers to Bordeaux, taking his daughters with him. Upon reaching Bordeaux, he left Eleanor and Petronilla in the charge of the Archbishop of Bordeaux, one of the Duke's few loyal vassals who could be entrusted with the safety of the duke's daughters. The duke then set out for the Shrine of Saint James of Compostela, in the company of other pilgrims; however, he died on Good Friday 9 April 1137.

1137年,威廉十世带着她的女儿从普瓦提埃出发前往波尔多。到达波尔多时,威廉十世将埃利诺和彼得罗妮拉交由波尔多大主教照管。波尔多大主教是公爵的少数几位可以将其女儿的安全予以托付的忠实封臣之一。然后,公爵便与其他朝圣者一起,前往孔波斯特拉的圣詹姆斯的墓地,但却于113749日,即耶稣受难日去世了。

Eleanor, aged about fifteen, became the Duchess of Aquitaine, and thus the most eligible heiress in Europe. As these were the days when kidnapping an heiress was seen as a viable option for obtaining a title, William had dictated a will on the very day he died, bequeathing his domains to Eleanor and appointing King Louis VI of France as her guardian. William requested the King to take care of both the lands and the duchess, and to also find her a suitable husband. However, until a husband was found, the King had the legal right to Eleanor's lands. The Duke also insisted to his companions that his death be kept a secret until Louis was informed the men were to journey from Saint James across the Pyrenees as quickly as possible, to call at Bordeaux to notify the Archbishop, and then to make all speed to Paris, to inform the King.

 因此,15岁的埃利诺成为阿奎丹的女公爵和欧洲最中意的女继承人。当时,诱骗一位女继承人被视为获得权利的非常可行的选择,因此,威廉临终前口授遗嘱,将公爵领地传给埃利诺,指定法国国王路易六世为其临护人。威廉要求国王照顾好公爵的领地和爵位的女继承人,并为她寻找一位合适的丈夫。但是,在结婚前,国王对埃利诺领有的土地有着法定的权利。威廉公爵对与之同行者要求对他的死保密,直到告知国王路易为止。因此,送信人从圣詹姆斯墓地以最快的速度翻越比利牛斯山,来到波尔多告知了大主教,然后又以最快的速度前往巴黎禀报国王。

The King of France himself was also gravely ill at that time, suffering "a flux of the bowels" (dysentery) from which he seemed unlikely to recover. Despite his immense obesity and impending mortality, however, Louis the Fat remained clear-minded. To his concerns regarding his new heir, Louis, who had been destined for the monastic life of a younger son (the former heir, Philip, having died from a riding accident),[was added joy over the death of one of his most powerful vassals and the availability of the best duchy in France. Presenting a solemn and dignified manner to the grieving Aquitainian messengers, upon their departure he became overjoyed, stammering in delight.

 此时的法国国王也病入膏肓,正遭受着"a flux of the bowels"(疾冬)病的折磨,而且难见好转的迹象。尽管身体过于肥胖且生命垂危,但胖子路易仍然头脑清醒。对路易六世来说,最关注的是其继承人问题,他的小儿子注定要过修道院的生活(此前的继承人腓力因一次骑马事故而殒命),值得高兴的是他最强大的封臣死了,法兰西最好的公国可以得到了。当着阿奎丹公爵的信使,路易表现得严肃而高贵,信使刚刚离开他便喜出望外,高兴得话都说不清了。

Rather than act as guardian to the Duchess and duchy, he decided, he would marry the duchess to his heir and bring Aquitaine under the French Crown, thereby greatly increasing the power and prominence of France and the Capets. Within hours, then, Louis had arranged for his son, Prince Louis, to be married to Eleanor, with Abbot Suger in charge of the wedding arrangements. Prince Louis was sent to Bordeaux with an escort of 500 knights, as well as Abbot Suger, Theobald II, Count of Champagne and Count Ralph of Vermandois.

 路易六世对阿奎丹女公爵和公爵领地并不是履行监护权,而是决定使其继承人与女公爵结婚,将阿奎丹纳入法兰西王权的控制之下,由此大大提升法国和加佩王朝的实力和地位。在短短的几个小时的时间里,路易六世便安排太子路易与埃利诺结婚,婚礼由修道院院长舒热主持。太子路易在500骑士卫队的陪伴下前往波尔多,同行的还有修道院院长舒热、香槟伯爵希尔布兰德和韦芒杜瓦伯爵拉尔夫。

 

 

First marriage第一次婚姻

 

 

 On 25 July 1137 the couple were married in the Cathedral of Saint-André in Bordeaux by the Archbishop of Bordeaux. Immediately after the wedding, the couple was enthroned as Duke and Duchess of Aquitaine. However, there was a catch: the land would remain independent of France and Eleanor's oldest son would be both King of the Franks and Duke of Aquitaine. Thus, her holdings would not be merged with France until the next generation. She gave Louis a wedding present that is still in existence, a rock crystal vase, currently on display at the Louvre.

 1137725,两位新人在波尔多的圣安德烈大教堂举行了婚礼。婚礼由波尔多大主教主持。婚礼之后,二人立即获得阿奎丹公爵及女公爵的爵位。但是,其中存在着一个隐患:阿奎丹公爵领地仍然独立于法兰西,埃利诺的长子将来既是法国国王又是阿奎丹公爵。于是,埃利诺的领地直到下一代人依然没有与法兰西合为一体。埃利诺送给路易的结婚礼物水晶花瓶,至今还在,陈列于卢浮宫。

Eleanor's tenure as junior Queen of the Franks lasted only few days. On 1 August, Eleanor's father-in-law died and her husband became sole monarch. Eleanor was anointed and crowned Queen of the Franks on Christmas Day of the same year.

 埃利诺作为太子妃的时间只持续了几天。113781日,埃利诺的公爹便去世了,她的丈夫成为毫无疑问的君主,是年的圣诞节,埃利诺也加冕为法国王后。

Possessing a high-spirited nature, Eleanor was not popular with the staid northerners (according to sources, Louis´ mother, Adélaide de Maurienne, thought her flighty and a bad influence) she was not aided by memories of Queen Constance, the Provencial wife of Robert II, tales of whose immodest dress and language were still told with horror.

 拥有旺盛精力的埃利诺并不受沉稳的北方人的欢迎(根据资料记载,路易的母亲莫列纳的艾戴莱德认为她轻狂且影响极坏)——但她并没有超过人们记忆中的法兰西国王罗伯特二世的普罗旺斯籍的康斯坦斯皇后,据说康斯坦斯皇后不入流的着装及语言,至今说起来都令人恐怖。

Her conduct was repeatedly criticized by Church elders (particularly Bernard of Clairvaux and Abbot Suger) as indecorous. The King, however, was madly in love with his beautiful and worldly bride and granted her every whim, even though her behavior baffled and vexed him to no end. Much money went into beautifying the austere Cite Palace in Paris for Eleanor's sake.

 埃利诺的行为举止因为不得体,屡屡遭到教会中德高望重者(尤其是克莱沃的伯纳德和舒热修道院院长)的批评。但是,国王路易疯狂地爱着他美丽而世故的新娘,并满足她的任何奇思怪想,即使令他困惑和为难也在所不惜。为埃利诺之故,路易向巴黎简朴阴暗的赛特宫投入了大量金钱予以美化。

 

 

Conflict 冲突

 

 

 Though Louis was a pious man he soon came into a violent conflict with Pope Innocent II. In 1141, the archbishopric of Bourges became vacant, and the King put forward as a candidate one of his chancellors, Cadurc, whilst vetoing the one suitable candidate, Pierre de la Chatre, who was promptly elected by the canons of Bourges and consecrated by the Pope. Louis accordingly bolted the gates of Bourges against the new Bishop; the Pope, recalling William X's similar attempts to exile Innocent's supporters from Poitou and replace them with priests loyal to himself, blamed Eleanor, saying that Louis was only a child and should be taught manners. Outraged, Louis swore upon relics that so long as he lived Pierre should never enter Bourges. This brought the interdict upon the King's lands. Pierre de la Chatre was given refuge by Theobald II, Count of Champagne.

 尽管路易是虔诚之人,但佷快便与教皇英诺森二世发生了激烈冲突。1141年,布尔日大主教位置空缺,国王路易提名国务大臣卡杜克(Cadurc)为候选人,当被否定之后,布尔日的选举团立即选举沙特尔的皮埃尔为候选人,并得到教皇的承认。于是,路易封锁了布尔日大教堂的大门,以对抗新主教;教皇回想当年,威廉十世流放英诺森的支持者,用忠诚于自己的人取而代之的企图,所以对埃利诺进行了谴责,称路易只是一个孩子,在行为方式上需要调教。愤怒的路易发誓道:只要他在世一天,皮埃尔休想踏进布尔日。由此产生了国王领地对皮埃尔的禁令,但沙特尔的皮埃尔得到香槟伯爵西奥博德二世的庇护。

Louis became involved in a war with Count Theobald of Champagne by permitting Raoul I, Count of Vermandois and seneschal of France, to repudiate his wife (Leonora), Theobald's niece, and to marry Petronilla of Aquitaine, Eleanor's sister. Eleanor urged Louis to support her sister's illegitimate marriage to Raoul of Vermandois. Champagne had also offended Louis by siding with the Pope in the dispute over Bourges. The war lasted two years (114244) and ended with the occupation of Champagne by the royal army. Louis was personally involved in the assault and burning of the town of Vitry. More than a thousand people (1300, some say) who had sought refuge in the church died in the flames.

 因为允许作为王室总管的韦芒杜瓦伯爵拉奥一世抛弃他的妻子(利奥诺拉)与阿奎丹的彼得罗妮拉结婚,而利奥诺拉是西奥博德的侄女,彼得罗妮拉是埃利诺的妹妹。埃利诺敦促路易支持其妹妹与韦芒杜瓦的拉奥的这场不合法的婚姻。在布尔日大主教问题上,香槟伯爵当然是站在教皇一边反对路易。双方的战争持续了两年之久(11421144年),以王室军队占领香槟而宣告结束。路易亲自参与了袭击,并焚烧了韦特瑞(Vitry)城。避难于教堂的上千人(有的说是1300人)死于大火。

Horrified, and desiring an end to the war, Louis attempted to make peace with Theobald in exchange for supporting the lift of the interdict on Raoul and Petronilla. This was duly lifted for long enough to allow Theobald's lands to be restored; it was then lowered once more when Raoul refused to repudiate Petronilla, prompting Louis to return to the Champagne and ravage it once more.

 恐惧使人渴望结束战争,路易企图以取消对拉奥与彼得罗妮拉的婚姻限制为条件,换取与西奥博德的和平。这一婚姻限制,随着西奥博德长期被占领地的恢复而取消了,当拉奥拒绝与彼得罗妮拉断绝往来时,这一限制被进一步取消,因为路易再次回到香槟并进行了蹂躏。

In June, 1144, the King and Queen visited the newly built cathedral at Saint-Denis. Whilst there, the Queen met with Bernard of Clairvaux, demanding that he have the excommunication of Petronilla and Raoul lifted through his influence on the Pope, in exchange for which King Louis would make concessions in Champagne, and recognise Pierre de la Chatre as archbishop of Bourges. Dismayed at her attitude, Bernard scolded her for her lack of penitence and her interference in matters of state. In response, Eleanor broke down, and meekly excused her behaviour, claiming to be bitter because of her lack of children. In response to this, Bernard became more kindly towards her: "My child, seek those things which make for peace. Cease to stir up the King against the Church, and urge upon him a better course of action. If you will promise to do this, I in return promise to entreat the merciful Lord to grant you offspring."

 11446月,国王和王后参观了新建的圣德尼大教堂。正是在圣德尼,王后见到了克莱沃的伯纳德,并要求他通过对教皇施加影响,以解除对彼得罗妮拉和拉奥的绝罚。作为交换,国王路易与香槟伯爵达成妥协,并承认沙特尔的皮埃尔为布尔日大主教。对埃利诺的态度感到失望的伯纳德,责骂她缺乏悔意并干涉国家政治事务。作为回应,埃利诺屈服了,温顺地请求对其行为予以原谅,声称因为没有孩子而感到痛苦。对此,伯纳德表现得非常宽容:“我的孩子,追寻和平之事吧。不要在国王与教会之间挑起事端了,敦促国王采取正确的路线。如果能够做到这些,我将请求仁慈的上帝赋予你后代。”

In a matter of weeks, peace had returned to France: Theobald's provinces had been returned, and Pierre de la Chatre was installed as Archbishop of Bourges. In April 1145, Eleanor gave birth to a daughter, Marie.

数星期后,法兰西迎来了和平:西奥博德的领地得以恢复,沙特尔的皮埃尔也得以即布尔日大主教之位。11454月,埃利诺也诞生一女儿玛丽。

Louis, however still burned with guilt over the massacre at Vitry-le-Brûlé, and desired to make a Pilgrimage to the Holy Land in order to atone for his sins. Fortuitously for him, in the Autumn of 1145, Pope Eugenius requested Louis to lead a Crusade to the Middle East, to rescue the Frankish Kingdoms there from disaster. Accordingly, Louis declared on Christmas Day 1145 at Bourges his intention of going on a crusade.

 然而,国王路易仍然深陷韦特瑞(Vitry-le-Brûlé)大屠杀所犯罪行的煎熬之中,寄希望于去圣地朝圣以赎罪。非常幸运的是,1145年秋天,教皇尤金(Eugenius)要求路易率十字军前往中东,拯救处于灾难之中的法兰克王国。因此,1145年的圣诞节,路易在布尔日宣布了将参加十字军的愿望。

 

 

Crusade 参加十字军

 

 

 Eleanor of Aquitaine took up the Second Crusade formally during a sermon preached by Bernard of Clairvaux. However she had been corresponding with her uncle Raymond, King and holder of family properties in Antioch where he was seeking further protection from the French crown. She recruited for the campaign, finally assembling some of her royal ladies-in-waiting as well as 300 non-noble vassals. She insisted on taking part in the Crusades as the feudal leader of the soldiers from her duchy. The story that she and her ladies dressed as Amazons is disputed by serious historians, sometime confused with the account of King Conrad's train of ladies during this campaign (in E. Gibbons Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire). Her testimonial launch of the Second Crusade from Vézelay, the rumored location of Mary Magdalene´s burial, dramatically emphasized the role of women in the campaign.

 克莱沃的伯纳德布道期间,阿奎丹的埃利诺正式参加了第二次十字军东征。当然,埃利诺与其叔父雷蒙德、国王路易及在安条克有着家族财产的人的动机是一致的,她要从法国国王那里寻求进一步的保护。为了这次远征,她开始招募军队,最终集结了一些宫廷女侍和300名非贵族附庸。她坚持参加十字军,是因为她是其公爵领地上应征士兵的封建首领。埃利诺与其全副武装女战士的历史,在严肃历史学家中引起了争论,有时与这次远征中康拉德国王所训练的女战士相混淆(见爱德华·吉本《罗马帝国衰亡史》)。埃利诺的十字军是从维兹莱(Vézelay)出发的,此地是传说中玛丽·玛格德琳的墓地之所在,意在夸大妇女在此次运动中的重要性。

The Crusade itself achieved little. Louis was a weak and ineffectual military leader with no skill for maintaining troop discipline or morale, or of making informed and logical tactical decisions. In eastern Europe, the French army was at times hindered by Manuel I Comnenus, the Byzantine Emperor, who feared that it would jeopardize the tenuous safety of his empire; however, during their 3-week stay at Constantinople, Louis was fêted and Eleanor was much admired. She is compared with Penthesilea, mythical queen of the Amazons, by the Greek historian Nicetas Choniates; he adds that she gained the epithet chrysopous (golden-foot) from the cloth of gold that decorated and fringed her robe. Louis and Eleanor stayed in the Philopation palace, just outside the city walls.

 十字军本身所取得的成绩微乎其微。路易是一个软弱而无能的军事指挥者,既无维持军队纪律或士气的技巧,也无做出合乎逻辑的战术决定的能力。在东欧,法国军队又多次遭到拜占廷科穆宁王朝皇帝曼努埃尔一世(Manuel I Comnenus)的阻碍,因为皇帝担心脆弱帝国的安全受到威胁。因为,在君士坦丁堡的3个星期里,路易得到崇高的荣誉,埃利诺也获得极高的赞誉。埃利诺被称为希腊神话中亚马逊人的皇后彭特西利亚(Penthesilea),希腊历史学家尼西塔斯·卓尼亚提斯(Nicetas Choniates)曾有所记载,并给埃利诺增加了一个绰号叫chrysopous (金靴),缘自其镶有金边的长袍装束。路易和埃利诺驻扎于城墙之外菲勒帕什宫。

From the moment the Crusaders entered Asia Minor, the Crusade went badly. The King and Queen were still optimistic the Byzantine Emperor had told them that the German Emperor Conrad had won a great victory against a Turkish army (where in fact the German army had been massacred), and the great troop was still eating well. However, whilst camping near Nicea, the remnants of the German army, including a dazed and sick Emperor Conrad, straggled past the French camp, bringing news of their disaster. The French, with what remained of the Germans, then began to march in increasingly disorganized fashion, towards Antioch. Their spirits were buoyed on Christmas Eve when they chose to camp in the lush Dercervian valley near Ephesus, they were ambushed by a Turkish detachment; the French proceeded to slaughter this detachment and appropriate their camp.

 自十字军进入小亚细亚以来,情况便走向恶化。国王和王后依然持乐观态度――拜占廷皇帝告诉他们说,德国皇帝康拉德已经取得了对土耳其人的巨大胜利(而实际情况是,德国军队死伤惨重),大批军队的食品供应良好。然而,当驻营地靠近尼西亚时,德国军队的残部,包括神志恍忽身染重病的皇帝康拉德,零散地从其营帐前退去,带给他们的是惨败的消息。此后,法国人与德国人的余部更加散乱地向安条克挺进。到平安夜的时候,这支军队的士气才有所高涨――当时他们正选择以弗所附近草木繁茂的德塞维亚谷地为营地,遭到突耳其特遣队的伏击,法国人前去攻击这支突耳其人的特遣队并侵占其营地。

Louis then decided to directly cross the Phrygian mountains, in the hope of speeding his approach to take refuge with Eleanor's uncle Raymond in Antioch. As they ascended the mountains, however, the army and the King and Queen were left horrified by the unburied corpses of the previously slaughtered German army.

 之后,路易决定直接翻越弗瑞俭山,企图快速进军以寻求安条克城中埃利诺叔父雷蒙德的庇护。当他们爬上山顶的时候,国王、王后及其军队被眼前的景象惊呆了,满眼所见皆是先前被杀还没有掩埋的德国十字军的尸体。

On the day set for the crossing of Mount Cadmos, Louis chose to take charge of the rear of the column, where the unarmed pilgrims and the baggage trains marched. The vanguard, with which Queen Eleanor marched, was commanded by her Aquitainian vassal, Geoffrey de Rancon; this, being unencumbered by baggage, managed to reach the summit of Cadmos, where de Rancon had been ordered to make camp for the night. De Rancon however chose to march further, deciding in concert with the Count of Maurienne (Louis´ uncle) that a nearby plateau would make a better camp: such disobedience was reportedly common in the army, due to the lack of command from the King.

 在穿越卡德莫斯山的那天,路易选择了殿后,而殿后的都是一些非武装的朝圣者和辎重车。埃利诺则跟随由阿奎丹的封臣杰弗里·德·兰康指挥的前锋部队行进。由于没有辎重负担,前锋部队奋力到达了卡德莫斯山顶,德·兰康得到的命令是在山顶安营过夜,但是德·兰康选择了继续前行,决定与莫里恩伯爵(路易的叔父)合作,在平原地带建立一处较好的营寨。这种违抗在军队中屡见不鲜,原因是缺乏来自国王的指令。

Accordingly, by midafternoon, the rear of the column believing the day's march to be nearly at an end was dawdling; this resulted in the army becoming divided, with some having already crossed the summit and others still approaching it. It was at this point that the Turks, who had been following and feinting for many days, seized their opportunity and attacked those who had not yet crossed the summit. The Turks, having seized the summit of the mountain, and the French (both soldiers and pilgrims) having been taken by surprise, there was little hope of escape: those who tried were caught and killed, and many men, horses and baggage were cast into the canyon below the ridge. William of Tyre placed the blame for this disaster firmly on the baggage which was considered to have belonged largely to the women.

 于是,中午时分,殿后部队――相信是当天行进队伍的近末尾的部分――十分懒散,导致队伍的分割,有些已经翻过山顶,而有些仍在向山顶行进。正在此时,几天来一直尾随其后的土耳其人抓住了时机,向还没有翻越山顶的军队发起了攻击。已经占领制高点的土耳其人使法国人(包括战士和朝圣者)倍感意外地被拦截住了,根本没有逃脱的希望:试图逃脱的被抓了回来处决了,许多人、马和辎重都被抛向山脊下面的山谷。提尔的威廉(William of Tyre)将这场灾难归之于辎重太多――而这些辎重大部分是妇女的。

The King was saved by his lack of authority having scorned a King's apparel in favour of a simple soldier's tunic, he escaped notice (unlike his bodyguards, whose skulls were brutally smashed and limbs severed). He reportedly "nimbly and bravely scaled a rock by making use of some tree roots which God had provided for his safety," and managed to survive the attack. Others were not so fortunate: "No aid came from Heaven, except that night fell."

 由于体现不出权威性,国王幸免遇难而得救了――路易不屑于国王的装束而喜欢普通士兵的束腰外衣,因此没有引起注意(与此不同的是,国王的卫士们则死得非常惨,有的头颅被击得粉碎,有的肢体被割断)。据说,国王“机敏而勇敢地抓住树根攀上了一块岩石躲了起来,上帝使其得以安全脱险,”最终免于遭受攻击。其他人则没有如此幸运:“没有来自上天的帮助,只好等待夜幕的降临。”

The official scapegoat for the disaster was Geoffrey de Rancon, who had made the decision to continue, and it was suggested that he be hanged (a suggestion which the King ignored). Since he was Eleanor's vassal, many believed that it was she who had been ultimately responsible for the change in plan, and thus the massacre. This did nothing for her popularity in Christendom as did the blame affixed to her baggage, and the fact that her Aquitainian soldiers had marched at the front, and thus were not involved in the fight. From here the army was split by a land march with the royalty taking the sea path to Antioch. When most of the land army arrived, the King and Queen had a profound dispute. Some say Eleanor's reputation was sullied by her supposed affair with her uncle Raymond of Poitiers, Prince of Antioch. However, it this may have been a mask, as Raymond through Eleanor tried to forcibly sway Louis to use his army to attack the actual Moslem encampment at nearby Aleppo, gateway to recovering Edessa, the objective of the Crusade by papal decree. Although this was perhaps the better military plan, Louis was not keen to enlarge Eleanor's family lands. One of Louis' avowed Crusade goals was to journey in pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Rather than fight and strike the decisive blow that could have ended the Second Crusade, Louis imprisoned Eleanor for her opposition, and in crossing the desert to Jerusalem, watched his army dwindle.

 这场灾难的真正替罪羊是杰弗里·德·兰康,是他决定登上山顶后继续前行的,有人建议绞死他(而国王则被忽略了)。因为兰康是埃利诺的封臣,所以许多人认为,埃利诺应对行动计划的改变以及由此造成的惨败负最终的责任。这对她在基督教世界的名望毫无损伤――因为这是她的辎重行李所引发的,事实上她的阿奎丹战士是行进队伍的前锋,并没有参与这场战斗。从此,十字军由于陆地行进而分裂了,国王便率领自己的队伍由海路向安条克进发。当大部分陆军抵达安条克时,国王和王后之间已经产生了严重的争执。有人认为,由于存在着与其叔父、安条克的国王、普瓦提埃的雷蒙德的绯闻,埃利诺的声誉受到影响。然而,这或许是一种遮掩,因为雷蒙德通过埃利诺力劝严重摇摆不定路易,利用其军队向阿勒颇附近的穆斯林营地发起进攻,打通收复埃德萨的道路,以完成教皇发动此次十字军东征的目标。尽管这是一项很好的军事计划,但路易对扩大埃利诺家族的土地并不热心。路易参加十字军的目标之一是前去耶路撒冷朝圣。所以,路易并不是参加战斗,给敌人以决定性的一击,结束第二次十字军东征活动,而是监禁了与之对立的埃利诺,穿越沙漠前往耶路撒冷,任其军队日渐减少。

Eleanor was humiliated by imprisonment a second time, for rightly opposing Louis's foolish assault on Damascus with his remaining army, fortified by King Conrad and King Baldwin. It appears that the idea was to plunder this neutral city that still traded with the Crusaders rather than focus any military force on reducing the Muslim forces that had hold of Aleppo, the gate to the recently Muslim reacquired state of Edessa - the actual mission of the 2nd Crusade by Papal decree. With Damascus a disastrous military failure, the royal family retreated to Jerusalem and then sailed to Rome and back to Paris.

路易欲率其残余部队向康拉德国王和鲍德温国王据守的大马士革发动愚蠢进攻,结果遭到埃利诺的反对,路易再次监禁了埃利诺,使她脸面尽失。有迹象显示,路易的想法就是,掠夺这一仍然与十字军保持着贸易往来的中立性城市,而不是集中各种军事力量削弱占领阿勒颇的穆斯林的力量,而阿勒颇是通向新近被穆斯林重新夺取的埃德萨伯国的必经之地――夺取埃德萨是教皇谕令中所确定的第二次十字军东征的实际任务。伴随着大马士革的军事失败,王室家族的军队撤回了耶路撒冷,之后便由海路取道罗马回到巴黎。

While in the eastern Mediterranean, Eleanor learned about maritime conventions developing there, which were the beginnings of what would become admiralty law. She introduced those conventions in her own lands, on the island of Oleron in 1160 and later in England as well. She was also instrumental in developing trade agreements with Constantinople and ports of trade in the Holy Lands.

 在东地中海沿岸的时候,埃利诺便了解到了产生于当地的海事公约,这是后来海事法的源头。1160年她将这种海事公约带回到自己的领地奥列隆岛,再后来还传入了英格兰。在发展与君士坦丁堡和圣地的贸易港口的商业活动方面,埃利诺也发挥了重要作用。

下一篇:THE MAGNA CARTA (《自由大宪章》)上一篇:阿奎丹的埃利诺(中)
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