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阿奎丹的埃利诺(中)
来源:中国世界中世纪史研究 作者:本站编辑 [日期:2009-11-21] 浏览:

Annulment 第一次婚姻的解除

Even before the Crusade, Eleanor and Louis were becoming estranged. The city of Antioch had been annexed by Bohemond of Hauteville in the First Crusade, and it was now ruled by Eleanor's flamboyant uncle, Raymond of Antioch, who had gained the principality by marrying its reigning Princess, Constance of Antioch. Clearly, Eleanor supported his desire to re-capture the nearby County of Edessa, the cause of the Crusade; in addition, having been close to him in their youth, she now showed excessive affection towards her uncle whilst many historians today dismiss this as familial affection (noting their early friendship, and his similarity to her father and grandfather), most at the time firmly believed the two to be involved in an incestuous and adulterous affair. Louis was directed by the Church to visit Jerusalem instead. When Eleanor declared her intention to stand with Raymond and the Aquitaine forces, Louis had her brought out by force. His long march to Jerusalem and back north debilitated his army, but her imprisonment disheartened her knights, and the divided Crusade armies could not overcome the Muslim forces. For reasons of plunder and the Germans' insistence on conquest, the Crusade leaders targeted Damascus, an ally until the attack. Failing in this attempt, they retired to Jerusalem, and then home. Before sailing for home, Eleanor got the terrible and ironic news that Raymond, with whom she had the winning battle plan for the Crusade, that he was beheaded by the overpowering forces of the Muslim armies from Edessa.

 即使在十字军东征之前,埃利诺和路易就开始变得疏远了。安条克城是在第一次十字军东征时由豪特维尔的博希蒙德兼并来的,现在由喜欢奢华的埃利诺的叔父安条克的雷蒙德统治着,他是通过与安条克女王康斯坦丝结婚而得到这一王位的。显然,埃利诺支持他重新占领安条克附近的埃德萨伯国,这也是此次十字军东征的主要目标。另外,在年轻人相互接近的过程中,埃利诺对其叔父表现得过于亲近,超乎了一般的爱――今天的许多历史学家对此有所忽视,认为这是家族内的天伦之爱(这是一种早期的友好,缘自其叔父与其父亲和祖父的相似),不过,当时的大多数人认为,两者的友好已经陷入乱伦和通奸。路易在教会的指导下去了耶路撒冷。当埃利诺表示要与雷蒙德和阿奎丹的军队站在一起时,路易用武力将其带了出来。在路易前往耶路撒冷的长途跋涉和北归途中,其军队已经是疲惫不堪,对埃利诺的监禁也使埃利诺的骑士们十分沮丧,于是,十字军分裂了,根本无法战胜穆斯林的军队。为了掠夺,也由于德国人对征服的坚持,十字军的首领们将目标确定为大马士革。直到发起进攻之时,十字军联盟还存在着。这一企图失败了,十字军先退回耶路撒冷,然后便打道回府了。在起航回到家之前,埃利诺得到了十分恐怖和出乎意料的消息,由以制定赢得十字军战争计划的雷蒙德,被来自埃德萨的具有绝对优势的穆斯林军队砍头的消息。

Home, however, was not easily reached. The royal couple, on separate ships due to their disagreements, were first attacked in May by Byzantine ships attempting to capture both (in order to take them to Byzantium, according to the orders of the Emperor). Although they escaped this predicament unharmed, stormy weather served to drive Eleanor's ship far to the south (to the Barbary Coast), and to similarly lose her husband. Neither was heard of for over two months: at which point, in mid-July, Eleanor's ship finally reached Palermo in Sicily, where she discovered that she and her husband had both been given up for dead. The King still lost, she was given shelter and food by servants of King Roger of Sicily, until the King eventually reached Calabria, and she set out to meet him there. Later, at King Roger's court in Potenza, she learnt of the death of her uncle Raymond; this appears to have forced a change of plans, for instead of returning to France from Marseilles, they instead sought the Pope in Tusculum, where he had been driven five months before by a Roman revolt.

 然而,回家的路并非一帆风顺,因为意见分歧,国王夫妇分乘在不同的船上。5月份,他们首先遭到企图捕获他们的拜占廷船只的攻击(根据拜占廷皇帝的命令,要把他们带回拜占廷)。尽管他们逃脱了此次厄运毫发无损,但暴风天气使埃利诺的船飘向南方(到达柏柏尔人的海岸),同样其丈夫也迷失了方向。双方失去联系长达两个多月:7月中旬,埃利诺的船只最终抵达西西里的巴勒莫,发现她与丈夫都没有死。国王依然处于失踪状态,她则得到来自西西里国王罗杰的庇护和接济,直到国王最终到达卡拉布里亚,才出发前去会合。后来,在罗杰国王位于波坦察的宫廷中,埃利诺得知了其叔父雷蒙德的死讯。这件事改变了他们从马赛返回法国的计划,取而代之的是去托斯库卢姆找教皇,直到罗马人起义将他们驱逐出去,在那里驻留了5个月。

Pope Eugenius III did not, as Eleanor had hoped, grant an annulment; instead, he attempted to reconcile Eleanor and Louis, confirming the legality of their marriage, and proclaiming that no word could be spoken against it, and that it might not be dissolved under any pretext.

 教皇尤金三世并没有象埃利诺所希望的那样解除两个人的婚姻,而是希望二人能够和好,并确认了他们婚姻的合法性,宣布不允许说任何反对此事的话,任何借口都不能解除这场婚姻。

Eventually, he arranged events so that Eleanor had no choice but to sleep with Louis in a bed specially prepared by the Pope. Thus was conceived their second child not a son, but another daughter, Alix of France. The marriage was now doomed. Still without a son and in danger of being left with no male heir, facing substantial opposition to Eleanor from many of his barons and her own desire for divorce, Louis had no choice but to bow to the inevitable. On 11 March, 1152, they met at the royal castle of Beaugency to dissolve the marriage. Archbishop Hugh Sens, Primate of France, presided, and Louis and Eleanor were both present, as were the Archbishops of Bordeaux and Rouen. Archbishop Samson of Reims acted for Eleanor. On 21 March, the four archbishops, with the approval of Pope Eugenius, granted an annulment due to consanguinity within the fourth degree (Eleanor and Louis were third cousins, once removed and shared common ancestry with Robert II of France). Their two daughters were, however, declared legitimate and custody of them awarded to King Louis. Archbishop Sampson received assurances from Louis that Eleanor's lands would be restored to her.

 最终,教皇尤金三世还设法,使埃利诺只能与路易睡在由他特别准备的一张床上。由此埃利诺怀上了他们的第二个孩子――但并不是儿子,而是又一个女儿,即法兰西的埃利克斯。这场婚姻注定要结束了。除了没有儿子和男性继承人之外,还面临着国王的许多男爵们对埃利诺的反对,以及埃利诺本人的离婚愿望,路易别无选择,只好承认这一不可避免的离婚结局。1152311日,他们在勃艮第的王室城堡会面,解除了这场婚姻。仪式由法国的首席主教休·桑斯大主教主持,除路易和埃利诺双双出席之外,还有波尔多和鲁昂的大主教参加。兰斯大主教萨姆森站在埃利诺一方。321日,在获得教皇尤金三世的批准之后,四个大主教将解除婚姻的协议送达双方的第四代血亲手中(埃利诺和路易的第三代堂表兄弟姊妹,曾经被取消,与法兰西的罗伯特二世有着共同的祖先)。但是,他们的两个女儿宣布为合法,由国王路易行使监护权。萨姆森从路易处得到保证,埃利诺的土地必须归还给她。

 

 

 

Second marriage 第二次婚姻 

 

 

Two lords Theobald V, Count of Blois, son of the Count of Champagne, and Geoffrey, Count of Nantes (brother of Henry II, Duke of the Normans) tried to kidnap Eleanor to marry her and claim her lands on Eleanor's way to Poitiers. As soon as she arrived in Poitiers, Eleanor sent envoys to Henry Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy, asking him to come at once and marry her. On 18 May, 1152 (Whit Sunday), six weeks after her annulment, Eleanor married Henry 'without the pomp and ceremony that befitted their rank'.[11] At that moment, Eleanor became Duchess of the Normans and Countess of the Angevins, while Henry became Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitiers. She was about 12 years older than he, and related to him more closely than she had been to Louis. Eleanor and Henry were third cousins through their common ancestor Ermengarde of Anjou (wife to Robert I, Duke of Burgundy and Geoffrey, Count of Gâtinais); they were also both descendants of Robert II of Normandy. A marriage between Henry and Eleanor's daughter, Marie, had indeed been declared impossible for this very reason. One of Eleanor's rumoured lovers had been Henry's own father, Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou, who had advised his son to avoid any involvement with her.

 两大贵族――香槟伯爵的儿子布洛瓦伯爵西奥博德五世和南特伯爵杰弗里(诺曼公爵亨利二世的弟弟)――试图在埃利诺回普瓦提埃的途中,绑架并迫使她与之结婚,以获得她的领地。埃利诺刚到达普瓦提埃,便向安茹伯爵和诺曼底公爵派出使节,要求他立即前来与之结婚。1152518日(圣灵降临节),埃利诺解除婚姻的第六周,“在没有炫耀和适合他们身份地位的仪式的情况下”,与亨利结婚了。由此,埃利诺又成为了诺曼女公爵和安茹的女伯爵。同时,亨利也成为了阿奎丹公爵和普瓦提埃伯爵。埃利诺比亨利大约年长12岁,与路易相比,两者更加亲密。从他们共同的祖先安茹的厄门加德(Ermengarde of Anjou,勃艮第公爵罗伯特一世和卡提奈伯爵的妻子)来算,埃利诺和亨利已是第三代堂表兄弟姊妹关系了,他们同时也是诺曼底公爵罗伯特二世的后代。因为这一原因,亨利与埃利诺的女儿玛丽之间的婚姻曾被宣布为不可能。埃利诺的绯闻男友之一曾被认为是亨利的父亲安茹伯爵杰弗里五世。杰弗里五世曾劝过他的儿子不要卷入与埃利诺的任何纠葛。

On 25 October 1154, Eleanor's second husband became King of the English. Eleanor was crowned Queen of the English by the Arcbishop of Canterbury on 19 December 1154. It may be, however, that she was not anointed on this occassion, because she had already been anointed in 1137.

 1154年10月25,埃利诺的第二任丈夫成为了英国国王。1154年12月19,在坎特伯雷大主教的主持下,埃利诺也加冕为英格兰王后。但是,这一次她并没有施行涂油礼,因为1137年时她已经施行过了。

Over the next thirteen years, she bore Henry five sons and three daughters: William, Henry, Richard, Geoffrey, John, Matilda, Eleanor, and Joan. John Speed, in his 1611 work History of Great Britain, mentions the possibility that Eleanor had a son named Philip, who died young. His sources no longer exist and he alone mentions this birth.

 在后来的13年中,埃利诺为亨利生下了5个儿子和3个女儿:威廉、亨利、理查德、杰弗里、约翰、玛蒂尔达、埃利诺和简。约翰·斯皮德在1611年的著作《大不列颠史》中提到,埃利诺有可能还有一个叫腓力的儿子,早年夭折了。他所引用的史料现已不存,但只有他提到过这一次生育。

Eleanor's marriage to Henry was reputed to be tumultuous and argumentative, although sufficiently cooperative to produce at least eight pregnancies. Henry was by no means faithful to his wife and had a reputation for philandering. Their son, William, and Henry's illegitimate son, Geoffrey, were born just months apart. Henry fathered other illegitimate children throughout the marriage. Eleanor appears to have taken an ambivalent attitude towards these affairs: for example, Geoffrey of York, an illegitimate son of Henry and a prostitute named Ykenai, was acknowledged by Henry as his child and raised at Westminster in the care of the Queen.

埃利诺与亨利之间的婚姻因喧闹和争议而出名,尽管两者有着充分的合作,至少出现了八次怀孕的机会。亨利对其妻子并不忠诚,以追逐调戏女人而著名。他们的儿子威廉与亨利的私生子杰弗里出生日期仅仅相差几个月。在这场婚姻延续期间,亨利还有其他的私生子女。对此,埃利诺表现得模棱两可:如约克的杰弗里是亨利与一个名叫娅克奈(Ykenai)的妓女所生的私生子,却得到亨利的承认,并被领回威斯敏斯特由王后来照看抚养。

The period between Henry's accession and the birth of Eleanor's youngest son was turbulent: Aquitaine, as was the norm, defied the authority of Henry as Eleanor's husband; attempts to claim Toulouse, the rightful inheritance of Eleanor's grandmother and father, were made, ending in failure; the news of Louis of France's widowhood and remarriage was followed by the marriage of Henry's son (young Henry) to Louis' daughter Marguerite; and, most climactically, the feud between the King and Thomas Becket, his Chancellor, and later his Archbishop of Canterbury. Little is known of Eleanor's involvement in these events. By late 1166, and the birth of her final child, however, Henry's notorious affair with Rosamund Clifford had become known, and her marriage to Henry appears to have become terminally strained.

亨利即位到埃利诺的最小儿子出生的这段时间,是最为混乱的:阿奎丹人是一个典型,一贯蔑视作为埃利诺的丈夫亨利的权威;企图获得埃利诺的祖父母的合法遗产图卢兹,但以失败告终;法兰西的路易的遗孀再婚,紧接着的是亨利的儿子(小亨利)与路易的女儿玛格丽特结婚;最高潮是国王与托马斯·贝克特之间的宿怨,贝克特是国王的首席大臣,后来成为坎特伯雷大主教。我们对埃利诺参与这些事件的历史所知甚少。晚至1166年,他们最后一个孩子出生,亨利与罗萨蒙德·克利福德之间的丑闻才公开,埃利诺与亨利之间的婚姻最终变得紧张了。

1167 saw the marriage of Eleanor's third daughter, Matilda, to Henry the Lion of Saxony; Eleanor remained in England with her daughter for the year prior to Matilda's departure to Normandy in September. Afterwards, Eleanor proceeded to gather together her movable possessions in England and transport them on several ships in December to Argentan. At the royal court, celebrated there that Christmas, she appears to have agreed to a separation from Henry. Certainly, she left for her own city of Poitiers immediately after Christmas. Henry did not stop her; on the contrary, he and his army personally escorted her there, before attacking a castle belonging to the rebellious Lusignan family. Henry then went about his own business outside Aquitaine, leaving Earl Patrick (his regional military commander) as her protective custodian. When Patrick was killed in a skirmish, Eleanor (who proceeded to ransom his captured nephew, the young William Marshal), was left in control of her inheritance.

 1167年,埃利诺的第三个女儿玛蒂尔达嫁给了萨克森的狮子亨利;在其女儿玛蒂尔达于9月份前往诺曼底之前,埃利诺与其女儿仍然居住在英格兰。之后,埃利诺开始收拾她在英格兰的可动产,12月将其分装几艘船运往阿根坦(Argentan)。在国王宫廷庆祝圣诞节的时候,埃利诺出席并同意与亨利分居。确切地讲,圣诞节之后,埃利诺便立即离开英格兰去往她自己的普瓦提埃。亨利并没有阻止她,相反,在对叛乱的吕西尼昂家族的城堡进行进攻之前,他和他的卫队还在那里予以保护。之后,亨利开始忙于自己阿奎丹以外的事务,留下帕特里克伯爵(他的当地军事指挥官)作为埃利诺的防卫负责人。当帕特里克在一次小冲突中被杀时,埃利诺(正着手赎回她被俘的外甥,年轻的威廉·马歇尔)被留了下来以控制其遗产。

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