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来源:中国世界中世纪史研究 作者:本站编辑 [日期:2009/11/21] 浏览:

Myth of the "Court of Love" in Poitiers有关普瓦提埃 “爱的法庭”的神话


Of all her influence on culture, Eleanor's time in Poitier was perhaps the most critical and yet the least is known of what happened. Away from Henry, Eleanor was able to develop her own court in Poitiers. At a small cathedral still stands the stained glass commemorating Eleanor and Henry with a family tree growing from their prayers. Her court style was to encourage the cult of courtly love. Apparently, however, both King and church expunged the records of the actions and judgments taken under her authority. A small fragment of the court letters, codes and practices were written by Andreas Capellanus. It appears that one activity in the court style was for 12 men and women to hear cases of love between individuals. This forum was the forerunner of the jury system that she would implement in England after releasing all prisoners upon Henry's death. The proceedings of the court are speculative and there is no evidence of any such love court, though the legends of the court have endured.

 埃利诺的最大影响是在文化方面,她在普瓦提埃期间或许是最具争议的,期间发生的事我们所知甚少。离开亨利之后,埃利诺才能够在普瓦提埃发展自己的宫廷。至今还在的小教堂中,纪念埃利诺和亨利的褪色的玻璃画上,饰有一幅用于祈祷的族谱。她的宫廷风格是鼓励高雅爱情文化。很显然,国王和教会删除了她统治下的行为记录和审案记录。但一些零星的宫廷信件、法典和习惯,还是被安德里阿思·卡佩拉勒斯(Andreas Capellanus)写了下来。根据这些记载显示,这种宫廷法庭的行为风格是,由12位男女听取个人间有关爱情的案件。这种讨论形式是陪审制的前身,亨利死后她将这一做法推行至英格兰,释放了所有的监禁者。这种法庭程序具有推测性,并没有这种爱情法庭的任何证据,尽管有关这种法庭的传说已经持续很久了。

Henry concentrated on controlling his increasingly-large empire, badgering Eleanor's subjects in attempts to control her patrimony of Aquitaine and her court at Poitiers. Straining all bounds of civility, Henry caused Archbishop Thomas Becket to be murdered at the altar of the church in 1170 (though there is considerable debate as to whether it was truly Henry's intent to be permanently rid of his archbishop ). This aroused Eleanor's horror and contempt, along with most of Europe's.





Revolt and capture 叛乱与被俘



In March 1173, aggrieved at his lack of power and egged on by his father's enemies, the younger Henry launched the Revolt of 11731174. He fled to Paris. From there 'the younger Henry, devising evil against his father from every side by the advice of the French King, went secretly into Aquitaine where his two youthful brothers, Richard and Geoffrey, were living with their mother, and with her connivance, so it is said, he incited them to join him'. The Queen sent her younger sons to France 'to join with him against their father the King'. Once her sons had left for Paris, Eleanor encouraged the lords of the south to rise up and support them. Sometime between the end of March and the beginning of May, Eleanor left Poitiers to follow her sons to Paris but was arrested on the way and sent to the King in Rouen. The King did not announce the arrest publicly. For the next year, her whereabouts are unknown. On 8 July, 1174, Henry took ship for England from Barfleur. He brought Eleanor on the ship. As soon as they disembarked at Southampton, Eleanor was taken away either to Winchester Castle or Sarum Castle and held there.





Years of imprisonment 11731189 被监禁的岁月(11731189年)



Eleanor was imprisoned for the next sixteen years, much of the time in various locations in England. During her imprisonment, Eleanor had become more and more distant with her sons, especially Richard (who had always been her favorite). She did not have the opportunity to see her sons very often during her imprisonment, though she was released for special occasions such as Christmas. About four miles from Shrewsbury and close by Haughmond Abbey is "Queen Eleanor's Bower," the remains of a triangular castle which is believed to have been one of her prisons.


Henry lost his great love, Rosamund Clifford, in 1176. He had met her in 1166 and began the liaison in 1173, supposedly contemplating divorce from Eleanor. Rosamond was one among Henry's many mistresses, but although he treated earlier liaisons discreetly, he flaunted Rosamond. This notorious affair caused a monkish scribe with a gift for Latin to transcribe Rosamond's name to "Rosa Immundi", or "Rose of Unchastity". Likely, Rosamond was one weapon in Henry's efforts to provoke Eleanor into seeking an annulment (this flared in October 1175). Had she done so, Henry might have appointed Eleanor abbess of Fontevrault (Fontevraud), requiring her to take a vow of poverty, thereby releasing her titles and nearly half their empire to him, but Eleanor was much too wily to be provoked into this.


Nevertheless, rumours persisted, perhaps assisted by Henry's camp, that Eleanor had poisoned Rosamund. No one knows what Henry believed, but he did donate much money to the Godstow Nunnery in which Rosamund was buried.


In 1183, Young Henry tried again. In debt and refused control of Normandy, he tried to ambush his father at Limoges. He was joined by troops sent by his brother Geoffrey and Philip II of France. Henry's troops besieged the town, forcing his son to flee. Henry the Young wandered aimlessly through Aquitaine until he caught dysentery. On Saturday, 11 June 1183, the Young King realized he was dying and was overcome with remorse for his sins. When his father's ring was sent to him, he begged that his father would show mercy to his mother, and that all his companions would plead with Henry to set her free. The King sent Thomas of Earley, Archdeacon of Wells, to break the news to Eleanor at Sarum. Eleanor had had a dream in which she foresaw her son Henry's death. In 1193 she would tell Pope Celestine III that she was tortured by his memory.


In 1183, Philip of France claimed that certain properties in Normandy belonged to Henry the Young's wife, Margaret of France, but Henry insisted that they had once belonged to Eleanor and would revert to her upon her son's death. For this reason Henry summoned Eleanor to Normandy in the late summer of 1183. She stayed in Normandy for six months. This was the beginning of a period of greater freedom for the still supervised Eleanor. Eleanor went back to England probably early in 1184. Over the next few years Eleanor often traveled with her husband and was sometimes associated with him in the government of the realm, but still had a custodian so that she was not free.





Widowhood 孀居



Upon Henry's death on July 6, 1189, just days after suffering an injury from a jousting match, Richard was his undisputed heir. One of his first acts as king was to send William the Marshal to England with orders to release Eleanor from prison, but her custodians had already released her.


Eleanor rode to Westminster and received the oaths of fealty from many lords and prelates on behalf of the King. She ruled England in Richard's name, signing herself as 'Eleanor, by the grace of God, Queen of England'. On 13 August, 1189, Richard sailed from Barfleur to Portsmouth, and was received with enthusiasm. She ruled England as regent while Richard went off on the Third Crusade. She personally negotiated his ransom by going to Germany.


Eleanor survived Richard and lived well into the reign of her youngest son King John. In 1199, under the terms of a truce between King Philip II of France and King John, it was agreed that Philip's twelve-year-old heir Louis would be married to one of John's nieces of Castile. John deputed Eleanor to travel to Castile to select one of the princesses. Now 77, Eleanor set out from Poitiers. Just outside Poitiers she was ambushed and held captive by Hugh IX of Lusignan, which had long ago been sold by his forebears to Henry II. Eleanor secured her freedom by agreeing to his demands and journeyed south, crossed the Pyrenees, and travelled through the Kingdoms of Navarre and Castile, arriving before the end of January, 1200.


King Alfonso VIII and Queen Leonora of Castile had two remaining unmarried daughters, Urraca and Blanche. Eleanor selected the younger daughter, Blanche. She stayed for two months at the Castilian court. Late in March, Eleanor and her granddaughter Blanche journeyed back across the Pyrenees. When she was at Bordeaux where she celebrated Easter, the famous warrior Mercadier came to her and it was decided that he would escort the Queen and Princess north. "On the second day in Easter week, he was slain in the city by a man-at-arms in the service of Brandin", a rival mercenary captain. This tragedy was too much for the elderly Queen, who was fatigued and unable to continue to Normandy. She and Blanche rode in easy stages to the valley of the Loire, and she entrusted Blanche to the Archbishop of Bordeaux, who took over as her escort. The exhausted Eleanor went to Fontevrault, where she remained. In early summer, Eleanor was ill and John visited her at Fontevrault.


Eleanor was again unwell in early 1201. When war broke out between John and Philip, Eleanor declared her support for John, and set out from Fontevrault for her capital Poitiers to prevent her grandson Arthur, John's enemy, from taking control. Arthur learned of her whereabouts and besieged her in the castle of Mirabeau. As soon as John heard of this he marched south, overcame the besiegers and captured Arthur. Eleanor then returned to Fontevrault where she took the veil as a nun.


Eleanor died in 1204 and was entombed in Fontevraud Abbey next to her husband Henry and her son Richard. Her tomb effigy shows her reading a Bible and is decorated with magnificent jewelry. By the time of her death she had outlived all of her children except for King John and Queen Leonora.





Appearance 外貌



Eleanor was very beautiful: all contemporary sources agree on this point.  Even in an era when ladies of the nobility were excessively praised, their praise of her was undoubtedly sincere. When she was young, she was described as perpulchra - more than beautiful. When she was around 30, which would have been considered middle aged or even old by medieval standards, Bernard de Ventadour, a noted troubadour, called her gracious, lovely, the embodiment of charm, extolling her lovely eyes and noble countenance and declaring that she was one meet to crown the state of any king.William of Newburgh emphasized the charms of her person, and even in her old age, Richard of Devizes described her as beautiful, while Matthew Paris, writing in the 13th century, recalled her admirable beauty.

 埃利诺非常漂亮:当时留下的所有资料都认同这一点。即使在贵妇人得到过分赞誉的时代,人们对她的赞扬无疑也是真诚的。年轻时她被描写得比“克列奥帕特拉”( perpulchra)还美丽。30岁左右,人到中年,或按中世纪的标准到老年时,著名行吟诗人塔杜瓦的伯纳德称她是“优雅、可爱、魅力的化身”,赞美她“有着秀美的眼睛和高贵的面容”,宣称她“配得上任何王国的王冠”。纽伯格的威廉强调她的个人魅力,甚至在老年阶段,德威兹的理查德依然称赞她的美丽,13世纪的马休·帕里斯,回想起埃利诺时仍称赞她为“令人折服的美丽”。

However, no one left a more detailed description of Eleanor. Thus, we are ignorant to even the color of her hair and eyes. The effigy on her tomb shows a tall and large-boned woman, though this may not be an accurate representation. Her seal of c. 1152 shows a woman with a slender figure, but this is likely an impersonal image. However, she was still slim enough to disguise herself as a man at the age of fifty-one, which means that she was reasonably lithe, tall, and not too buxom.


The 12th-century ideal of beauty was blond hair and blue eyes, thus many have suggested that the chroniclers would not have been so exuberant in their praises if Eleanor had not conformed to this ideal. However, it is more likely that she had red or auburn hair, inheriting her coloring from her father and grandfather, who were both brown-eyed with copper-red hair. The evidence for this can be found in a mural in the chapel of Sainte-Radegonde at Chinon. The mural, which was painted during Eleanor's lifetime in a region in which she was well known and almost certainly depicts her, shows a woman with reddish-brown hair.


What is certain is that from an early age Eleanor attracted the attention of men, not only because of her looks but also because of her welcoming manner and inherent flirtatiousness and wit. Gervase of Canterbury described her much later as "an exceedingly shrewd and clever woman, born of noble stock, but unstable and flighty."





In historical fiction 历史小说中的埃利诺



Eleanor and Henry are the main characters in James Goldman's play The Lion in Winter, which was made into a film starring Peter O'Toole and Katharine Hepburn in 1968 (for which Hepburn won the Academy Award for Best Actress and the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role and was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Drama), and remade for television in 2003 with Patrick Stewart and Glenn Close (for which Close won the Golden Globe Award for Best Performance by an Actress In A Mini-series or Motion Picture Made for Television and was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress - Miniseries or a Movie).

在詹姆斯·歌德曼的戏剧《冬天里的狮子》中, 埃利诺和亨利是主人公。1968年,该剧被改编成电影,使彼得·奥图和凯瑟琳·赫本一举成名(赫本因此获得学会奖最佳女演员奖、电影学院奖最佳女主角奖,获金球奖——剧情片最佳女演员提名奖)。2003年被改编为电视剧,由帕特里克·斯图尔特和格伦·克洛斯主演(为此,克洛斯获得金球奖迷你电视剧或电视电影最佳女演员奖,获得艾美奖电视连续或电影最佳女演员奖)。

The depiction of Eleanor in the play Becket, which was filmed in 1964 with Pamela Brown as Eleanor, contains historical inaccuracies, as acknowledged by the author, Jean Anouilh.

 1964年,对埃利诺有所描述的剧作《贝克特》被拍成电影,由帕梅拉·布朗扮演埃利诺, 正如作者让·阿努尔所承认的那样,其中情节有历史的不确切性。

In 2004, Catherine Muschamp's one-woman play, Mother of the Pride, toured the UK with Eileen Page in the title role. In 2005, Chapelle Jaffe played the same part in Toronto.


The character "Queen Elinor" appears in William Shakespeare's King John, along with other members of the family. On television, she has been portrayed in this play by Una Venning in the BBC Sunday Night Theatre version (1952) and by Mary Morris in the BBC Shakespeare version (1984).


She figures prominently in Sharon Kay Penman's novels, When Christ And His Saints Slept, Time and Chance, and Devil's Brood. Penman has also written a series of historical mysteries where she, in old age, sends a trusted servant to unravel various puzzles. The titles are The Queen's Man, Cruel as the Grave, Dragon's Lair, and Prince of Darkness.


Eleanor has also featured in a number of screen versions of Ivanhoe and the Robin Hood story. She has been played by Martita Hunt in The Story of Robin Hood and His Merrie Men (1952), Jill Esmond in the British TV adventure series The Adventures of Robin Hood (19521953), Phyllis Neilson-Terry in the British TV adventure series Ivanhoe (1958), Yvonne Mitchell in the BBC TV drama series The Legend of Robin Hood (1975), Siân Phillips in the TV series Ivanhoe (1997), and Tusse Silberg in the TV series The New Adventures of Robin Hood (1997).

 埃利诺还出现在《艾凡赫》和《罗宾汉》的各种表现形式当中,如荧屏和银幕上。在《罗宾汉与他的快乐伙伴们》(1952年)中,由玛蒂达·汉特扮演埃利诺。在不列颠电视台的系列历险节目《罗宾汉历险记》(19521953年)中,由吉尔·埃丝蒙德扮演埃利诺。在不列颠电视台的系列历险节目《艾凡赫》(1958年)中,由菲力斯·纳尔松-苔丽扮演埃利诺。在BBC系列电视剧《罗宾汉传奇》(1975年)中,由伊冯·米切尔(Yvonne Mitchell)扮演埃利诺。在电视连续剧《艾凡赫》(1997年)中,由锡安·腓力普斯(Siân Phillips)扮演埃利诺。在电视连续剧《新罗宾汉历险记》(1997年)中,由图赛·西伯格(Tusse Silberg)扮演埃利诺。

She has also been portrayed by Mary Clare in the silent film Becket (1923), based on a play by Alfred Lord Tennyson, Prudence Hyman in the British children's TV series Richard the Lionheart (1962), and Jane Lapotaire in the BBC TV drama series The Devil's Crown (1978), which dramatised the reigns of Henry II, Richard I and John. Most recently she was portrayed by Lynda Bellingham in the BBC One series Robin Hood (2006 TV series).


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